Category Archives: List of semi-presidential countries (historic)

General information

Since the switch to the new blog, Presidential Power, I am not updating this blog with information about semi-presidential countries. However, to facilitate visitors who want to find general information about semi-presidentialism very quickly, here are the links to the most frequently viewed posts on this blog.

List of current semi-presidential countries

List of historic semi-presidential countries

List of president-parliamentary and premier-presidential semi-presidential countries

List of presidential and parliamentary countries

Semi-presidentialism in disputed area or territories (current and historic)

List of periods of cohabitation


Visitors might also be interested in the following series of posts. Please just follow the thread on the archives.

When was the first reference to semi-presidentialism?

What was the first semi-presidential country?

Some difficult cases of semi-presidentialism

Historic cases of semi-presidentialism – Full list with dates

This is the full list of historic cases of semi-presidentialism that I am currently working with (as of 8 December 2017).

Please note. The entry date is the date when a semi-presidential constitution was formally adopted. The exit date is the date when there was a change in the constitutional status. This may be a move from semi-presidentialism to parliamentarism (e.g. Moldova). More often than not, though, the exit date corresponds to a coup and the suspension of the constitution (e.g. Burkina Faso in December 1980). If the old constitution is subsequently restored, I record a new period dating from the time when the old constitution was reactivated (e.g. Mauritania).

Angola (1992-2010), Austria (1929-1934)

Burkina Faso/Upper Volta (1970-1974, 1978-1980), Burundi (1992-1994)

Central African Republic (1981, 1992-2003, 2005-2013), Comoros (1979-1985, 1992-1999), Congo-Brazzaville/Republic of Congo (1992-1997), Congo-Kinshasa/Dem. Rep. of Congo (1990-1997), Cuba (1940-1952, 1955-59)

Egypt (2007-2011, 2012-2013)

Germany (Weimar Republic) (1919-1933), Guinea-Bissau (1993-2012)

Kenya (2008-2010)

Madagascar (1992-2009), Mauritania (1991-2005, 2006-2008), Moldova (1994-2001)

Niger (1991-1996, 1999-2009)

Peru (1979-1992)

Rwanda (1991-1993)

Senegal (1970-1983), South Korea (1980-1987), South Vietnam (1967-1975)

Tunisia (1988-2011), Turkey (2007-2017)

Yemen (1994-2011), Yugoslavia (2000-2003)

Note also that some of these countries are currently semi-presidential, having returned to semi-presidentialism at a later date. The full list of current cases is available separately.