Category Archives: List of president-parliamentary and premier-presidential countries with dates

General information

Since the switch to the new blog, Presidential Power, I am not updating this blog with information about semi-presidential countries. However, to facilitate visitors who want to find general information about semi-presidentialism very quickly, here are the links to the most frequently viewed posts on this blog.

List of current semi-presidential countries

List of historic semi-presidential countries

List of president-parliamentary and premier-presidential semi-presidential countries

List of presidential and parliamentary countries

Semi-presidentialism in disputed area or territories (current and historic)

List of periods of cohabitation


Visitors might also be interested in the following series of posts. Please just follow the thread on the archives.

When was the first reference to semi-presidentialism?

What was the first semi-presidential country?

Some difficult cases of semi-presidentialism

List of president-parliamentary and premier-presidential countries with dates

Here is the list of president-parliamentary and premier-presidential regimes that I am currently working with (as of 22 April 2017).

These terms were first defined by Matthew Shugart and John Carey in Presidents and Assemblies. Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

The distinction between the two terms can be expressed as follows:

President-parliamentarism is a form of semi-presidentialism where the prime minister and cabinet are collectively responsible to both the legislature and the president.

Premier-presidentialism is a form of semi-presidentialism where the prime minister and cabinet are collectively responsible solely to the legislature.

If there are any classification errors, then do please let me know:

Current president-parliamentary countries:

Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Burkina Faso (1991-), Cameroon, Congo (Republic of), Gabon, Iceland, Madagascar (2010-), Mauritania (2009-), Mozambique, Namibia, Peru, Russia, Rwanda, Senegal (2001-), Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo

Current premier-presidential countries:

Algeria, Armenia (2005-), Bulgaria, Cabo Verde, Chad, Croatia (2001-), Czech Republic, Dem. Rep. of Congo, Egypt (2014-), Finland, France, Georgia (2013-), Haiti, Ireland, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mali (2012-), Moldova (2016-), Mongolia, Montenegro, Niger, Poland, Portugal (1983-), Romania, São Tomé e Príncipe (2003-), Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Timor-Leste, Tunisia, Ukraine (2014-)

There are countries that are no longer semi-presidential or which are currently semi-presidential but which have changed their form of semi-presidentialism over time. These cases are captured in the following lists.

Historic cases of president-parliamentarism:

Angola, Armenia (1995-2005), Burkina Faso (1978-1983), Burundi, Central African Republic, Comoros, Croatia (1991-2000), Cuba, Egypt (2007-2011), Georgia (2004-2013), Germany (Weimar Republic), Guinea-Bissau, (1993-2012), Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar (1996-2009), Mauritania (2006-2008), Portugal (1976-1982), São Tomé e Príncipe (1990-2002), Senegal (1970-1983), South Vietnam, Tunisia, Ukraine (1996-2006, 2011-2014), Yemen (1994-2011)

Historic cases of premier-presidentialism:

Burkina Faso (1970-1974), Congo-Brazzaville, Egypt (2012-2013), Kenya, Madagascar (1992-1995), Mali (1992-2012), Mauritania (1991-2005), Moldova (1994-2001), Senegal (1991-2000), Turkey (2007-2017), Ukraine (2007-2010)