Historic cases of semi-presidentialism – Full list with dates

This is the full list of historic cases of semi-presidentialism that I am currently working with (as of 3 July 2013).

Please note. The entry date is the date when a semi-presidential constitution was formally adopted. The exit date is the date when there was a change in the constitutional status. This may be a move from semi-presidentialism to parliamentarism (e.g. Moldova). More often than not, though, the exit date corresponds to a coup and the suspension of the constitution (e.g. Burkina Faso in December 1980). If the old constitution is subsequently restored, I record a new period dating from the time when the old constitution was reactivated (e.g. Mauritania).

Angola (1992-2010), Austria (1929-1933)

Burkina Faso/Upper Volta (1970-1974, 1978-1980), Burundi (1992-1994)

Central African Republic (1981, 1992-2003, 2005-2013), Comoros (1979-1985, 1992-1999), Congo-Brazzaville/Republic of Congo (1992-1997), Congo-Kinshasa/Dem. Rep. of Congo (1990-1997), Cuba (1940-1952, 1955-59)

Egypt (2007-2011, 2012-2013)

Germany (Weimar Republic) (1919-1933), Guinea-Bissau (1993-2012)

Kenya (2008-2010)

Madagascar (1992-2009), Mauritania (1991-2005, 2006-2008), Moldova (1994-2001)

Niger (1991-1996, 1999-2009)

Peru (1979-1992)

Rwanda (1991-1993)

Senegal (1970-1983), South Korea (1980-1987), South Vietnam (1967-1975)

Tunisia (1988-2011)

Yemen (1994-2011), Yugoslavia (2000-2003)

Note also that some of these countries are currently semi-presidential, having returned to semi-presidentialism at a later date. The full list of current cases is available separately.

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