Up-to-date list of semi-presidential countries with dates

Here is the list I am currently working with (as of 28 June 2018). I have now included the year when the country most recently adopted a semi-presidential constitution. ‘Historic’ cases are identified separately. If there are any errors, then do please let me know:

  • Algeria (1989), Austria (1945), Azerbaijan (1995)
  • Belarus (1996), Bulgaria (1991), Burkina Faso (1991)
  • Cameroon (1996), Cape Verde (1990), Central African Republic (2016), Congo (Republic of) (2015), Croatia (1990), Czech Republic (2012)
  • Dem. Rep. Congo (2006)
  • Egypt (2014)
  • Finland (1919), France (1962)
  • Gabon (1991), Georgia (2004)
  • Haiti (1990)
  • Iceland (1944), Ireland (1937)
  • Kyrgyzstan (1993)
  • Lithuania (1992)
  • Macedonia (1991), Madagascar (2010), Mali (2012), Mauritania (2009), Moldova (2016), Mongolia (1992), Montenegro (2006), Mozambique (1990)
  • Namibia (1990), Niger (2010)
  • Peru (1993), Poland (1990), Portugal (1976)
  • Romania (1990), Russia (1993), Rwanda (2003)
  • São Tomé e Príncipe (1990), Senegal (1991), Serbia (2006), Slovakia (1999), Slovenia (1991), Sri Lanka (1978), Syria (2012)
  • Taiwan (1997), Tanzania (1995), Timor-Leste (2002), Togo (1992), Tunisia (2014)
  • Ukraine (1996)

14 thoughts on “Up-to-date list of semi-presidential countries with dates

  1. Zoljargal Khayandorj

    Hi !. Mr. Professor. I am Mongolian. I believe Mongolia is parliamentary system of government. Because we have unicameral parliament with 76 seats. Our executive branch is elected from unicameral parliament. We named our parliament “State Great Khural”. But we elect our president by direct popular election. Now our parliament is going to amend the constitution. We have prime minister, president and speaker of parliament.Why you selected our country as semi-presidential system. Please reply to my question.

  2. Robert Elgie

    Thanks for the message. It is semi-presidential because you have a directly elected president and a prime minister and cabinet that can be voted out of office by the legislature.

  3. William msengi

    Tanzania’s system is parliamentary because the cabinet is drawn from the legislature.only MPs are qualified to be member of cabinet while in semi-presidential the member of cabinet can’t be the member of parliament at the same time.now can you explain why you regard Tanzania as semi presidential?

  4. Robert Elgie

    Thanks for the comment. Semi-presidentialism is where there is a directly elected president and a prime minister and cabinet that are collectively responsible to the legislature. In Tanzania, the president is directly elected. In addition, Art. 53 of the Constitution allows the National Assembly to vote no-confidence in the prime minister, who must resign if the vote is passed. Art. 57 then states that all ministers must resign if the PM resigns. So, there is collective responsibility. In this way, Tanzania meets the definition of semi-presidentialism. There is nothing in the definition that requires cabinet members to be members of the legislature or not to be members of it. The issue is whether the cabinet – however the PM and ministers are appointed and wherever they come from – is responsible to the legislature. I hope that answers your question.

  5. Maame

    Why is Ireland considered a semi-presidential democracy though the president has very little power.And the office of the president is ceremonial.

  6. Robert Elgie

    The definition of semi-presidentialism used here does not include any reference to presidential power. So, whether a country has a figurehead president or a very powerful president, constitutionally it can still be semi-presidential. If you need to know more, then a lot of papers are available on this topic at: http://doras.dcu.ie/view/people/Elgie,_Robert.html

  7. Prof. Dr. Salim Şen

    Dear Sir,
    Your studies are realy excellent to enlighten almost everey one to become knoqlageable about the different methods of national administrative sturctures.
    As a retired Profesor of Management, your explanations made it clear for me to understand the needs of nations, in relation to keeping national unitiy and society.
    Please, include Turkeyamong your studies. Turkish Ambassadors are vital points. In my opinion,Turkey needs your views to keep nation united. I express my best feelings and respect to you. Salim Şen

  8. Ella Hutchinson

    Hi there,
    Could you please explain why Rwanda is semi-presidential not presidential?


  9. Robert Elgie

    So, semi-presidentialism relates to the constitution and not necessarily the practice of power. Art. 131 of the 2003 constitution (as amended in 2010) allows the Chamber of Deputies to vote a motion of no-confidence in the PM and government. If passed, then the cabinet must resign collectively. Along with a directly elected president, that is the essence of semi-presidentialism. In practice, of course, the president is dominant. The PM is subordinate to the president and the Chamber of Deputies would not vote no-confidence in the government. All the same, constitutionally it could, so Rwanda is formally semi-presidential.

  10. Charlotte

    Dear Robert,

    Thank you very much for maintaining thisvery useful list. I found the Republic of Congo on two of your lists: once on the list of semi-presidential systems (as of 2018) and once on the one of presidential systems (as of 2017). Which classification is correct according to your criteria?




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