Category Archives: List of semi-presidential countries (current)

General information

My CV  and List of Publications are available online.

Here are links to the most frequently viewed posts on this blog.

Semi-presidentialism, premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism – A country-years dataset

Presidential power scores – A country years dataset

List of current semi-presidential countries

List of historic semi-presidential countries

List of president-parliamentary and premier-presidential semi-presidential countries

List of presidential and parliamentary countries

Semi-presidentialism in disputed area or territories (current and historic)

List of periods of cohabitation

Visitors might also be interested in the following series of posts. Please just follow the thread on the archives.

When was the first reference to semi-presidentialism?

What was the first semi-presidential country?

Some difficult cases of semi-presidentialism

Up-to-date list of semi-presidential countries with dates

Here is the list I am currently working with (as of 28 March 2018). I have now included the year when the country most recently adopted a semi-presidential constitution. ‘Historic’ cases are identified separately. If there are any errors, then do please let me know:

  • Algeria (1989), Austria (1945), Azerbaijan (1995)
  • Belarus (1996), Bulgaria (1991), Burkina Faso (1991)
  • Cameroon (1996), Cape Verde (1990), Central African Republic (2016), Chad (1996), Congo (Republic of) (2015), Croatia (1990), Czech Republic (2012)
  • Dem. Rep. Congo (2006)
  • Egypt (2014)
  • Finland (1919), France (1962)
  • Gabon (1991), Georgia (2004)
  • Haiti (1990)
  • Iceland (1944), Ireland (1937)
  • Kyrgyzstan (1993)
  • Lithuania (1992)
  • Macedonia (1991), Madagascar (2010), Mali (2012), Mauritania (2009), Moldova (2016), Mongolia (1992), Montenegro (2006), Mozambique (1990)
  • Namibia (1990), Niger (2010)
  • Peru (1993), Poland (1990), Portugal (1976)
  • Romania (1990), Russia (1993), Rwanda (2003)
  • São Tomé e Príncipe (1990), Senegal (1991), Serbia (2006), Slovakia (1999), Slovenia (1991), Sri Lanka (1978), Syria (2012)
  • Taiwan (1997), Tanzania (1995), Timor-Leste (2002), Togo (1992), Tunisia (2014)
  • Ukraine (1996)