Category Archives: List of semi-presidential countries (current)

General information

Since the switch to the new blog, Presidential Power, I am not updating this blog with information about semi-presidential countries. However, to facilitate visitors who want to find general information about semi-presidentialism very quickly, here are the links to the most frequently viewed posts on this blog.

List of current semi-presidential countries

List of historic semi-presidential countries

List of president-parliamentary and premier-presidential semi-presidential countries

List of presidential and parliamentary countries

Semi-presidentialism in disputed area or territories (current and historic)

List of periods of cohabitation

 

Visitors might also be interested in the following series of posts. Please just follow the thread on the archives.

When was the first reference to semi-presidentialism?

What was the first semi-presidential country?

Some difficult cases of semi-presidentialism

Up-to-date list of semi-presidential countries with dates

Here is the list I am currently working with (as of 17 October 2016). I have now included the year when the country most recently adopted a semi-presidential constitution. ‘Historic’ cases are identified separately. If there are any errors, then do please let me know:

  • Algeria (1989), Armenia (1995), Austria (1945), Azerbaijan (1995)
  • Belarus (1996), Bulgaria (1991), Burkina Faso (1991)
  • Cameroon (1991), Cape Verde (1990), Chad (1996), Congo (Republic of) (2015), Croatia (1991), Czech Republic (2012)
  • Dem. Rep. Congo (2006)
  • Egypt (2013)
  • Finland (1919), France (1962)
  • Gabon (1991), Georgia (2004)
  • Haiti (1987)
  • Iceland (1944), Ireland (1937)
  • Kyrgyzstan (1993)
  • Lithuania (1992)
  • Macedonia (1991), Madagascar (2010), Mali (2012), Mauritania (2009), Moldova (2016), Mongolia (1992), Montenegro (2006), Mozambique (1990)
  • Namibia (1990), Niger (2010)
  • Peru (1993), Poland (1990), Portugal (1976)
  • Romania (1990), Russia (1993), Rwanda (2003)
  • São Tomé e Príncipe (1990), Senegal (1991), Serbia (2006), Slovakia (1999), Slovenia (1992), Sri Lanka (1976), Syria (2012)
  • Taiwan (1997), Tanzania (1995), Timor-Leste (2002), Togo (1992), Tunisia (2014), Turkey (2007)
  • Ukraine (1996)