Cohabitation – São Tomé e Príncipe

This is a series of posts that records the cases of cohabitation in countries with semi-presidential constitutions. Cohabitation is defined as the situation where the president and prime minister are from different parties and where the president’s party is not represented in the cabinet. Presidents classed as non-party cannot generate any periods of cohabitation.

Here is my list of cohabitations in São Tomé e Príncipe:

Oct 1994 – Dec 1995
President – Miguel Trovoada (ADI); PM – Carlos da Graça (MLSTP-PSD); Coalition – MLSTP-PSD, PCD

Dec 1995 – Nov 1996
President – Miguel Trovoada (ADI); PM – Armindo Vaz d’Almeida (MLSTP-PSD); Coalition – MLSTP-PSD, PCD

Nov 1996 – Jan 1999
President – Miguel Trovoada (ADI); PM – Raul Bragança Neto (MLSTP-PSD); Coalition – MLSTP-PSD, PCD

Jan 1999 – Sep 2001
President – Miguel Trovoada (ADI); PM – Guilherme Posser de Costa (MLSTP-PSD); Coalition – MLSTP-PSD

March 2004 – Sep 2004
President – Fradique de Menezes (MDFM-PL); PM – Maria das Neves Ceita Baptista de Sousa (MLSTP-PSD); MLSTP-PSD, Ue-K (inc ADI)

Sep 2004 – Jun 2005
President – Fradique de Menezes (MDFM-PL); PM – Damião Vaz d’Almeida (MLSTP-PSD); Coalition – MLSTP-PSD, ADI

January 2010 – August 2010
President – Fradique de Menezes (MDFM-PL); PM – Joaquim Rafael Branco (MLSTP-PSD); Coalition – MLSTP-PSD, PCD

August 2010 – September 2011
President – Fradique de Menezes (MDFM-PL); PM – Patrice Trovoada (ADI); Government – ADI

São Tomé is a really interesting case because, along with Weimar and Sri Lanka, it is the only case of a country with president-parliamentary form of semi-presidentialism to experience cohabitation. Also, with Romania, it is the only country where cohabitation has begun mid-term. This happened in 2004 and on 31 December 2009 when the president’s MDFM party left the coalition. Finally, it has experienced a lot of cohabitation. In fact, it is the most cohabitation-prone country. (See previous post).

Source of party affiliations:

Party abbreviations:

ADI – Acção Democrática Independente (Independent Democratic Action)
MDFM-PL – Movimento Democrático Força da Mudança-Partido Liberal (Force for Change Democratic Movement-Liberal Party)
MLSTP-PSD – Movimento de Libertação de São Tomé e Príncipe-Partido Social Democrata (Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé e Príncipe-Democratic Socialist Party)
PCD – Partido de Convergência Democrática (Democratic Convergence Party)
Ue-K – Uê Kédadji (a coalition)

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